BRCA germline mutations in Jewish patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Konstantinopoulos PA, Norquist B, Lacchetti C, et al. In addition, certain variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 can cause subtypes of Fanconi anemia, a rare syndrome that is associated with childhood solid tumors and development of acute myeloid leukemia (15–17). Does health insurance cover the cost of genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants? $\ce{CaI2(s) + Cl2(g) â CaCl2(s) + I2(s)}\nonumber$ will occur; but the reaction $\ce{CaF2(s) + Br2(â) â CaBr2(s) + F2(g)}\nonumber$ will not, because bromine is below fluorine on the periodic table. NH3 N2 + H2 2 NH3 N2 + 3 H2 Li2S ? No effective ovarian cancer screening methods are known. Anyone who is concerned about the possibility that they may have a harmful variant in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene should discuss their concerns with their health care provider or a genetic counselor. Germline and somatic tumor testing in epithelial ovarian cancer: ASCO guideline. BRCA1 (BReast CAncer gene 1) and BRCA2 (BReast CAncer gene 2) are genes that produce proteins that help repair damaged DNA. The answer will appear below, Always use the upper case for the first character in the element name and the lower case for the second character. + CaI 2 I 2 + CaBr 2 16. Rebbeck TR, Friebel TM, Friedman E, et al. Cline MS, Liao RG, Parsons MT, et al. Everyone has two copies of each of these genesâone copy inherited from each parent. A positive test result may allow people to make informed decisions about their future health care, including taking steps to reduce their cancer risk. Cl2, Br2, and I2). Prostate 2019; 79(8):880–895. That is because blood cells and cells that are present in saliva, like every cell in the body, contain the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. 10) Cl 2 + MgI 2---> I 2 + MgCl 2 People considering BRCA1 and BRCA2 variant testing may want to confirm their insurance coverage for genetic counseling and testing. A harmful variant in BRCA1 or BRCA2 can be inherited from either parent. JAMA 2010; 304(9):967–975. American Journal of Human Genetics 2003; 72(5):1117–1130. This is just one of many ways the periodic table helps us to understand chemistry. Ferrone CR, Levine DA, Tang LH, et al. Tamoxifen and breast cancer incidence among women with inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP–P1) Breast Cancer Prevention Trial. PMID: 25186361 Cl2 + MgI2 ---> CHEMISTRY SINGLE REPLACEMENT REACTION WORKSHEET REACTION CATEGORY SINGLE REPLACEMENT REACTION DESCRIPTION In these reactions, a free element reacts with a compound A positive test result may also have important implications for family members, including future generations. In the case of permitted digital reproduction, please credit the National Cancer Institute as the source and link to the original NCI product using the original product's title; e.g., “BRCA Gene Mutations: Cancer Risk and Genetic Testing was originally published by the National Cancer Institute.”. Dealing with uncertainty of an uninformative negative or a VUS test result is another potential harm. Some experts recommend the use of ultrasound or MRI/magnetic retrograde cholangiopancreatography to screen for pancreatic cancer in people who are known to carry a harmful BRCA1 or BRCA2 variant and who have a close blood relative with pancreatic cancer (30). Some expert groups recommend that such men undergo regular annual clinical breast exams starting at age 35 (23). Some people may choose to have genetic testing via direct-to-consumer (DTC) testing. Risk-reducing surgery. By using this website, you signify your acceptance of, Instructions and examples below may help to solve this problem, calcium hydroxide + carbon dioxide = calcium carbonate + water, Enter an equation of a chemical reaction and click 'Balance'. 3. A + BC ----> BA + C In these reactions, a free element reacts with a compound to form another compound and release one of the elements of the original compound in the elemental state.There are How much does an inherited harmful variant in BRCA1 or BRCA2 increase a woman’s risk of breast and ovarian cancer? Even if someone has inherited a harmful variant in BRCA1 or BRCA2 from one parent, they would have inherited a normal copy of that gene from the other parent (that’s because in most cases, embryos with a harmful variant from each parent cannot develop). British Journal of Cancer 2007; 96(1):11–15. Four PARP inhibitors—olaparib [Lynparza], rucaparib [Rubraca], niraparib [Zejula], and talazoparib [Talzenna]—are approved by the FDA to treat certain cancers bearing harmful variants in BRCA1 or BRCA2. MFCD00010910. However, it is not yet clear whether pancreatic cancer screening and early pancreatic cancer detection reduces the overall risk of dying from a pancreatic cancer. Complete the equations for these single replacement reactions in teh aqueous solution. Finch A, Beiner M, Lubinski J, et al. Therefore, people considering genetic testing must understand that their results may become known to other people or organizations that have legitimate, legal access to their medical records, such as their insurance company or employer, if their employer provides the patient’s health insurance as a benefit. 5) Br 2 + CaI 2---> I 2 + CaBr 2. Cavanagh H, Rogers KM. This is called a, Without testing family members who have had cancer, it is uncertain whether the negative test means that the person did not inherit a. Brose MS, Rebbeck TR, Calzone KA, et al. H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2 Decomposition Practice PbI2 ? Some groups recommend transvaginal ultrasound, blood tests for the CA-125 antigen (which can be present at higher-than-normal levels in women with ovarian cancer), and clinical examinations for ovarian cancer screening in women with harmful BRCA1 or BRCA2 variants. Both women in the general population, as well as those with harmful BRCA1 or BRCA2 variants, who have ever used oral contraceptives (birth control pills) have about a 50% lower risk of ovarian cancer than women who have never used oral contraceptives (37). The association of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations with prostate cancer risk, frequency, and mortality: A meta-analysis. If a close blood relative of the tested person is known to carry a harmful BRCA1 or BRCA2 variant, a negative test result is clear: it means the tested person did not inherit the harmful variant that is present in the family and cannot pass it to their children. However, none of these methods appear to detect ovarian tumors at an early enough stage to improve long-term survival (28). Fe + CuSO4 SINGLE REPLACEMENT REACTION WORKSHEET 20. Limiting reagent can be computed for a balanced equation by entering the number of moles or weight for all reagents. Human Mutation 2018; 39(5):593–620. Oh M, Alkhushaym N, Fallatah S, et al. Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al. Everyone has two copies of each of these genes—one copy inherited from each parent. Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice 2015; 13(1):16. In the Icelandic population, a different variant in BRCA1 is common among those who inherit a mutation in BRCA1. Gronwald J, Tung N, Foulkes WD, et al. Kurian AW. 1883-09-04 text newspaper Reel number â¦ Journal of Clinical Oncology 2014; 32(15):1547–1553. In many cases a complete equation will be suggested. 7) Mg + HCl ---> MgCl 2 + H 2. ... CaI2 11. Mg + HCI l8.Zn + HZSOa 19. And there is some concern that women who have a harmful BRCA variant might be particularly sensitive to the DNA-damaging effects of tests that involve radiation (such as mammography) because they already have a defect in DNA repair (31). Oxidation Numbers Worksheet Answers â It is a lot easier to train your child or to enable them to with school research when they have had experience with understanding in the house. 6) Al + HCl ---> AlCl 3 + H 2. Report an issue . Plymouth Meeting, PA: National Comprehensive Cancer Network, 2020. JAMA 2019; 322(7):652–665. As more research is conducted and more people are tested for BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants, scientists will learn more about uncertain changes and cancer risk. When a family history suggests the possibility that someone without cancer may have inherited a harmful variant in BRCA1 or BRCA2, it is best for a family member who has already been diagnosed with cancer to be tested, if such a person is alive and willing to get tested. In women, these include fallopian tube cancer (5, 6) and primary peritoneal cancer (7), both of which start in the same cells as the most common type of ovarian cancer. ... HBr(g) 1/2 H2(g) + 1/2 Br2(g) (b) 2 HBr(g) H2(g) + Br2(g) (c) 1/2 H2(g) + 1/2 Br2(g) Chemistry. Phillips KA, Milne RL, Rookus MA, et al. Oxidation Reduction Worksheet. Balance the reaction of Br2 + CaI2 = Ca + BrI2 using this chemical equation balancer! Levine DA, Argenta PA, Yee CJ, et al. Br2 + CaI2 ---> 16. Prostate cancer risks for male BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: A prospective cohort study. If all family members with cancer are deceased or are unwilling or unable to have genetic testing, testing family members who have not been diagnosed with cancer may still be of value and provide good information. Genetic counseling can help a person understand what a VUS in BRCA1 or BRCA2 may mean in terms of their cancer risk. Instead, expert groups recommend that testing be focused on those who have a higher likelihood of carrying a harmful BRCA1 or BRCA2 variant, such as those who have a family history of certain cancers. R is an abbreviation for any group in which a carbon atom is attached to the â¦ Biallelic mutations in BRCA1 cause a new Fanconi anemia subtype. Available online with free registration. Reproductive risk factors for ovarian cancer in carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations: A case–control study. Calcium iodide, ultra dry NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast, Ovarian, and Pancreatic. Until the interpretation of the variant is clarified, management of risk should be based on family history and other risk factors. 9) Fe + CuSO 4---> Cu + FeSO 4 If Fe(III) is used, then Fe 2 (SO 4) 3 would result. 4. (In some cases, these are used whether or not a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation is present.). The risk for any one woman depends on a number of factors, some of which have not been fully characterized. Chemoprevention. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Cancer risk estimates for BRCA1 mutation carriers identified in a risk evaluation program. Enter either the number of moles or weight for one of the compounds to compute the rest. Hall MJ, Reid JE, Burbidge LA, et al. Cl2 + 2NaBr 2NaCl + Br2 7. Again obvious. A positive test result indicates that a person has inherited a known harmful variant in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (these are typically called “pathogenic” or “likely pathogenic” variants on laboratory test reports) and has an increased risk of developing certain cancers. Ungraded . BMJ 2012; 345:e5660. The likelihood of carrying an inherited mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (the prevalence) varies across specific population groups. Yes. Knowing if the variant was inherited is important for that individual to understand their risks to potentially develop other cancers in the future. There are three main steps for writing the net ionic equation for AgNO3 + MgBr2 = Mg(NO3)2 + AgBr (Silver nitrate + Magnesium bromide). Cl 2 + MgI 2 I â¦ JAMA 2018; 319(23):2401–2409. Show the setup of the calculation to determine the number of moles of CaBr2 in the sample. This program was created with a lot of help from: The book "Parsing Techniques - A Practical Guide" (IMHO, one of the best computer science books ever written. Farmer MB, Bonadies DC, Mahon SM, et al. The direct medical harms of genetic testing are minimal, but knowledge of test results, whether positive or negative, may have harmful effects on a person’s emotions, social relationships, finances, and medical choices. Sometimes people with cancer find out that they have a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation when their tumor is tested to see if they are a candidate for treatment with a particular targeted therapy. The activity of the halogens decreases as you go down the Group (17) of the periodic table. Fallopian tube and primary peritoneal carcinomas associated with BRCA mutations. Fe + CuSO 4 Cu + FeSO 4 20. Balance each equation. This is because there are no risk-reduction strategies that are specifically meant for children, and children are very unlikely to develop a cancer related to an inherited BRCA variant. Zn + H 2 SO 4 H 2 + ZnSO 4 19. Science 2002; 297(5581):606–609. Alter BP. Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: Calcium iodide, 10102-68-8. The potential harms of these drugs include menopausal symptoms, blood clots, stroke, increased risk of endometrial cancer (tamoxifen), and allergic reactions (raloxifene). If you would like to reproduce some or all of this content, see Reuse of NCI Information for guidance about copyright and permissions. Enhanced screening. The activity of the halogens decreases as yo go down the Group (17) of the periodic table. Want to use this content on your website or other digital platform? Risk assessment, genetic counseling, and genetic testing for BRCA-related cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Ovarian cancer: About 1.2% of women in the general population will develop ovarian cancer sometime during their lives (1). Select two compounds above and this calculator will predict whether or not the reaction will occur in water.This is simply based on the solubility chart of inorganic compounds. Harmful variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 increase the risk of several additional cancers. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Inherited mutations—also called germline mutations or variants—are present from birth in all cells in the body. NCCN recommends risk assessment for people who have a blood relative with a known or likely harmful variant in any of these genes; who have certain personal and/or family histories of cancer (cancer diagnosed at a younger age, certain types of cancer, people with two or more cancer diagnoses, or families with multiple cases of cancer); or who have certain inherited cancer predisposition disorders, such as Cowden syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, or Fanconi anemia. Br2 + CaI2 â CaBr2 + I2. 2Al + 6HCI 3H 2 + 2AlCl 3 17. BRCA1 (BReast CAncer gene 1) and BRCA2 (BReast CAncer gene 2) are genes that produce proteins that help repair damaged DNA. Cells that don’t have any functioning BRCA1 or BRCA2 proteins can grow out of control and become cancer. HBr . Fanconi anemia and the development of leukemia. It can also determine if other family members may be at risk of inheriting the harmful variant. Journal of Medical Genetics 2009; 46(9):593–597. Zn + 3AgNO3 ----> 3Ag + Zn(NO3)3. Genetic counselors can often help answer questions about insurance coverage for genetic testing. A double replacement reaction will occur if a formation of a precipitate , gas or water takes place. Last accessed November 2, 2020. However, it is important that a person who has a VUS test result regularly obtains updated information from the testing provider in case that VUS is reclassified as a harmful or likely harmful variant. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2002; 94(18):1365–1372. BRCA Challenge: BRCA Exchange as a global resource for variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Version 1.2021. Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM), Coping with Your Feelings During Advanced Cancer, Emotional Support for Young People with Cancer, Young People Facing End-of-Life Care Decisions, Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment, Tech Transfer & Small Business Partnerships, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Milestones in Cancer Research and Discovery, Step 1: Application Development & Submission, National Cancer Act 50th Anniversary Commemoration. CaI2 + Hg(NO3)2 --> (HgI2 precipitates) Double Replacement CaI2 + Hg(NO3)2 --> HgI2 + Ca(NO3)2 ... Write the formula for the binary compound that decomposes to the products H2 and Br2 . SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2017, National Cancer Institute. Na + Cu(NO3)2, the Na is a +a million and the nitrate is a -a million, so NaNO3 consequences. All of these screening approaches have potential harms as well as possible benefits. If someone knows they have a mutation in one of these genes, they can take steps to reduce their risk or detect cancer early. The potential benefits of a true negative result include a sense of relief regarding the future risk of cancer, learning that one's children are not at risk of inheriting the family's cancer susceptibility, and the possibility that special check-ups, tests, or risk-reducing surgeries may not be needed. Some genetic testing companies may offer testing for inherited BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants at no charge to patients who lack insurance and meet specific financial and medical criteria. 2Al + 3H2SO4 ---->3 H2 + Al2(SO4)3. Risk-reducing surgery does not guarantee that cancer will not develop because not all at-risk tissue can be removed by these procedures. This type of test result is called “a variant of uncertain significance,” or VUS, because it isn’t known whether this specific genetic change is harmful. How can a person who has inherited a harmful BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene variant reduce their risk of cancer? Cl2 +2 KI ----> I2 + 2KCl European Urology 2020; 77(1):24–35. Studies have not examined the effectiveness of raloxifene in BRCA1 and BRCA2 variant carriers specifically. While the prevalence in the general population is about 0.2%–0.3% (or about 1 in 400), about 2.0% of people of Ashkenazi Jewish descent carry a harmful variant in one of these two genes and the variants are usually one of three specific variants, called founder mutations. jP â¡ ftypjp2 jp2 Yjp2h ihdr%p Ç colr ,res resd=â =â resc=â =â rxml image/jp2 Savannah morning news (Savannah, Ga. : 1868) (Savannah, GA) 1883-09-04 [p ] Page from Savannah morning news (Savannah, Ga. : 1868) (newspaper). Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. 30 seconds . Pijpe A, Andrieu N, Easton DF, et al. What are the treatment implications of having a harmful BRCA1 or BRCA2 variant for patients who have already developed cancer? 2HI + Ca(OH)2 - â¦ By contrast, 39%–44% of women who inherit a harmful BRCA1 variant and 11%–17% of women who inherit a harmful BRCA2 variant will develop ovarian cancer by 70–80 years of age (2–4). Risk-reducing, or prophylactic, surgery involves removing as much of the "at-risk" tissue as possible. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2020; 38(11):1222–1245. the two H totaled as much as +2 and made H2 â¦ These surgeries are irreversible, and each has potential complications or harms. Available online with free registration. There can be benefits to genetic testing, regardless of whether a person receives a positive or a negative result. For instance, African Americans have BRCA1 variants that are not seen in other racial/ethnic groups in the United States (19–21). Because harmful BRCA variants reported in the tumor may be of somatic or germline origin, someone with such a variant in their tumor should consider having a germline genetic (blood) test to determine if the variant was inherited. Genetic counseling is recommended for those people as well to help them understand the test results and to make sure the most appropriate test was done. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in women of different ethnicities undergoing testing for hereditary breast-ovarian cancer. What are the benefits of genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants? Some will contact the tested person directly, whereas others place the responsibility on the tested person to check back in on a regular basis to learn of updates to the interpretation of their VUS test result. Negative result. What other cancers are linked to harmful variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2? By contrast, 55%–72% of women who inherit a harmful BRCA1 variant and 45%–69% of women who inherit a harmful BRCA2 variant will develop breast cancer by 70–80 years of age (2–4). Salpingo-oophorectomy and the risk of ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancers in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. International Journal of Cancer 2006; 118(9):2281–2284. Each child of a parent who carries any mutation in one of these genes has a 50% chance (or 1 in 2 chance) of inheriting the mutation. Calcium iodide | CaI2 | CID 5462722 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more. Substitute immutable groups in chemical compounds to avoid ambiguity. However, a positive test result cannot tell whether or when the tested individual will develop cancer. Al2O3 5. Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology 2010; 22(1):72–78. Bethesda, MD, https://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2017/, based on November 2019 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2020. What a great software product!) Evans DG, Gaarenstroom KN, Stirling D, et al. Examples: Fe, Au, Co, Br, C, O, N, F.     Compare: Co - cobalt and CO - carbon monoxide, To enter an electron into a chemical equation use {-} or e. To enter an ion specify charge after the compound in curly brackets: {+3} or {3+} or {3}. Goggins M, Overbeek KA, Brand R, et al. 1. Reaction stoichiometry could be computed for a balanced equation. Screening for familial ovarian cancer: Poor survival of BRCA1/2 related cancers. Other populations, such as Norwegian, Dutch, and Icelandic peoples, also have founder mutations (18). Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2013 Dec. Report No.

Br2 + CaI2 â CaBr2 + I2

Si + 2F2 â SiF4

H2 + Br2 â 2HBr

answer explanation . All four structures are built up from distorted Ca(H2O)8 antiprisms. Management of patients with increased risk for familial pancreatic cancer: Updated recommendations from the International Cancer of the Pancreas Screening (CAPS) Consortium. Cancer Discovery 2015; 5(2):135–142. For this reason, it is important to have genetic counseling before undergoing genetic testing. Best Practice & Research Clinical Haematology 2014; 27(3–4):214–221. That is why these surgical procedures are described as “risk-reducing” rather than “preventive.” Some women have developed breast cancer, ovarian cancer, or primary peritoneal carcinomatosis (a type of cancer similar to ovarian cancer) even after risk-reducing surgery. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) has criteria for genetic testing of BRCA1 and BRCA2 as well as for several other genes (including CDH1, PALB2, PTEN, and TP53) that are associated with increased risk of breast and/or ovarian cancer (23). For example, in several studies women who underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy had a nearly 80% reduction in risk of dying from ovarian cancer, a 56% reduction in risk of dying from breast cancer (32), and a 77% reduction in risk of dying from any cause during the studies’ follow-up periods (33). Men with BRCA2 variants, and to a lesser extent BRCA1 variants, are also at increased risk of breast cancer (8) and prostate cancer (9–11). Testing can be appropriate for both people without cancer as well as people who have been diagnosed with cancer. Our syndication services page shows you how. AB + C ----> CB + A 2. Removing the ovaries may also reduce the risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women by eliminating a source of hormones that can fuel the growth of some types of breast cancer. Tai YC, Domchek S, Parmigiani G, Chen S. Breast cancer risk among male BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. ); The Gold Parsing System (Hats off! (Ovarian cancers often originate in the fallopian tubes, so it is essential that they be removed along with the ovaries.) Hu C, Hart SN, Polley EC, et al. Start studying Types of chemical reactions.. ÌO´ ô/Û HÜAõÅ¡Í®ð ÔstB£p ´&ÃÆT­U?âºyÅ½ãúÐÎ¬ @ ¿¬VX^ 0dO ßÅ ­É'>Õ|Å Ñ©ý« 7âIÅö¥:â¦ µ@ùVQW&fH? Instructions on balancing chemical equations: Enter an equation of a chemical reaction and click 'Balance'. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Sometimes, a genetic test finds a change in BRCA1 or BRCA2 that has not been previously associated with cancer and is uncommon in the general population. Biallelic inactivation of BRCA2 in Fanconi anemia. The Calitha - GOLD engine (c#) (Made it possible for me to do this program in C#) McLaughlin JR, Risch HA, Lubinski J, et al. Cancer Journal 2019; 25(4):231–236. BRCA1/2 testing: Therapeutic implications for breast cancer management. Findlay GM, Daza RM, Martin B, et al. The reduction in breast and ovarian cancer risk from removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes appears to be similar for carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants (33). 1. The mutations that cause these Fanconi anemia subtypes have a milder effect on protein function than the mutations that cause breast and ovarian cancer. SURVEY . Sawyer SL, Tian L, Kähkönen M, et al. Gut 2020; 69(1):7–17. And if they have cancer, the information about their mutation may be important for selecting treatment. These include bleeding or infection, anxiety and concerns about body image (bilateral risk-reducing mastectomy), and early menopause in premenopausal women (bilateral risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy). PLoS Genetics 2018; 14(12):e1007752. Al + HCI 17. Figure 1. The answer will appear below; Always use the upper case for the first character in the element name and the lower case for the second character. Breast cancers with harmful BRCA1 variants are more likely to be "triple-negative cancers" (that is, the breast cancer cells do not have estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, or large amounts of HER2/neu protein) than sporadic breast cancers or breast cancers with harmful BRCA2 variants. If you do not know what products are enter reagents only and click 'Balance'. Different racial/ethnic and geographic populations also tend to carry different variants in these genes. Why Commemorate 50 Years of the National Cancer Act? : 12-05164-EF-1. A person with such a test result, called a true negative, has a risk of cancer that is similar to that of someone in the general population. Howlett NG, Taniguchi T, Olson S, et al. Nevertheless, these surgical procedures greatly reduce risk. So receiving a negative result with a DTC test may not mean that they don’t have a harmful variant in BRCA1 or BRCA2.

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